- To undertake quantitative ecological study of the populations of 3 species of Calamus (C. guruba, C. viminalis and C. latifolius) and mapping their distribution in Khurda Forest Division.
- To derive phylogenetic relationships among the species and to assess inter and intra-population genetic diversity in these species using molecular tools.
An attempt was made to make a quantitative assessment of the three dominant wild species of Calamus (C. guruba, C. viminalis and C. latifolius), mapping their distribution in Khurda Forest Division and documenting the population structure of these taxa based on extensive field survey. Eleven (11) nos. of sample plots, each of 100 X 100 m size were laid in Ankula, Baliganda, Badakhola, Jeripada, Raidiha, Selingpara, Khadijhari forests of Balugaon Forest Range of Khurda forest division characterized by semi-evergreen forests. In addition to earlier known 3 species of cane (Calamus guruba, C. latifolius and C. viminalis), occurrence of three more species such as Calamus latispinus, C. caesia and C. rotang has been reported from forest of Khurda Forest Division. The locality of occurrence and distribution of the species and population structure of all the 6 species have been recorded.
||Name of the species
||Locality of collection
||C. caesius Blume
||C. guruba Buch.-Ham.
||Jeripada, Ankula, Baliganda, Raidiha, Khadijhari etc
||Handicrafts, house construction, Edible fruits and tender leaf axis. Seeds as beads.
||C. latifolius Roxb.
||Handicrafts, Furniture, Edible fruits
||C. latispinus Miq.
||C. rotang Linn.
||C. viminalis Willd.
||Ankula, Khari Pahada, Giripuja Nala, Raidiha, Tavasankanal etc.
||Fine handicrafts, Rope
Genetic diversity and molecular phylogeny was analyzed using ISSR markers, where exceedingly high polymorphism (96.34%) was observed. Molecular analysis established close relationships between C. viminalis and C. guruba and C. latifolius-C. rotang-C. caesius formed another cluster showing closer genetic affinity. Genetic diversity analysis and population genetic studies were conducted from 8 populations of Calamus guruba from 5 districts of Odisha using ISSR marker. The population genetic analysis revealed a very low genetic variability at species level as compared to other species having similar life-history traits. The highest polymorphism (20.31%) was found in Cuttack and lowest (6.25%) in Ghatikia population. The data revealed partitioning of 30.74% of the total genetic diversity within the population and 69.25% among populations. The study suggested that in view of higher genetic diversity, C. guruba population from Cuttack must be preserved and utilized as germplasm resources for ex situ conservation and as source of seed/ planting materials for reintroduction programmes.
2.2. Quantitative assessment, mapping of geographical distribution and study of population structure of forest species in representative vegetation types of Odisha
- Enumerating the plant resources, their population levels and structure:- diversity, dominance, density of individual species.
- Developing thematic maps of the density and distribution for all the species of economic importance and botanical interest (medicinal, NTFP, timber, oil-yielding, fodder, fibre and special plant groups).
- Quantitative estimation of available resource levels of the plants and level of disturbance.
- Identifying the threats on the plant resources and enlisting the threatened species for conservation action.
Plant diversity and population inventory was made in 28 grids of 1000 m X 5m size (0.5 ha) representing five major forest types of Odisha i.e. I. Odisha Semi-evergreen forests; II. Tropical Moist Desiduous forests, III. Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest, IV. Central Indian Hill forest and V. Littoral and Tidal Swamp forest. No. of plants, GBH, height of all trees above 30 cm GBH were recorded. Diversity and density of herbs, shrubs, lianas and regeneration of tree species were assessed from 5 x 5 m size plots laid within transects. The stand density, basal area, diversity indices, regeneration potential, distribution of diameter classes will be calculated and compared to characterize a distinct forest type. The level of disturbance was assessed laying grids at different distances from village clusters. A total of 100 grids will be worked out under the project and finally the data on ecological and diversity parameters will be analyses.