8.1. Biochemical Analysis of Wild Edible Fruits and Medicinal Plants
- To screen wild edible fruits of Odisha for proximate analysis like moisture, total carbohydrate, total sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, protein, phenol, acidity, ascorbic acid, carotinoids and mineral elements like iron, cupper, zinc, sodium, potassium, calcium etc with a view to recommend for dietary consumption.
- To compare both proximate and micronutrient content in wild edible fruits with that of popularly consumed cultivated fruits such as apple, banana etc to determine the nutritional status of wild underutilized fruits.
- To evaluate total antioxidant activity of ethno-medicinally important wild edible fruits of Odisha by standard antioxidant assays.
Initially 15 wild edible fruits commonly found in eastern Odisha namely Bridelia tomentosa, Carissa spinarum, Eugenia rothii, Glycosmis pentaphylla, Mimusops elengi, Morinda tinctora, Phyllanthus acidus, Polyalthia suberosa, Solanum torvum, Streblus taxoidis, Terminalia citrina,Toddalia asiatica, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ziziphus oenoplia, Ziziphus rugos were selected for analysis
Findings of Proximate analysis
The proximate analysis revealed that many wild edible fruits found in Odisha are not only delectable but also can be considered nutrient rich. Mimusops elengi observed to be the fruit with lowest moisture content of 55.11 % and Ziziphus mauritiana with the highest (87.41 %). Total carbohydrate, the most abundant chemical constituent found in fruits was recorded highest in Eugenia rothii (19.01 %) and lowest in Terminalia citrina (3.10 %). Total sugar content was found to be abundant in Ziziphus rugosa (20.70 %) followed by Eugenia rothii (18.00 %) and Mimusops elengi (15.90 %). Lowest amount of total sugar out of the 15 species under investigation was recorded both in Glycosmis pentaphylla and Streblus taxoidis (1.35 %). Reducing sugar ranged between 0.04% to 8.20 %, Carissa spinarum being the highest. Amount of non-reducing sugar ranged from 0.17% in Carissa spinarum to 19.13% in Ziziphus rugosa. Similarly, the protein content varied between 0.23% to 3.64 %. The lowest amount of protein was recorded in Morinda tinctora and the highest in Carissa spinarum followed by Bridelia tomentosa (3.17 %) and Polyalthia suberosa (1.96%). Phenols, one of the natural
antioxidants found in nature was also abundant in some of these species. Highest phenol content was recorded in Mimusops elengi (3.10%) followed by Terminalia citrina (3.04 %) and Toddalia asiatica (1.60 %). Lowest phenol content was recorded in Solanum torvum (0.20%).The presence of acidity contributes to the sour taste of fruit. Highest total acid content was recorded in Ziziphus mauritiana (0.78 %) and the lowest both in Terminalia citrina and Toddalia asiatica (0.09%). Highest ascorbic acid (Vit-C) content was registered in Terminalia citrina (53.52 mg/100g) and the lowest in Fig 3: Eugenia rothii
Glycosmis pentaphylla (15.77 mg/100g). Carotinoids, the tetraterpenoid compounds which are responsible for fruit colour are also rich source of antioxidants. Carotenoid content ranged between 13.90 to 139.00 mg/g; the highest being in Toddalia asiatica and the lowest in Ziziphus rugosa.
Findings of micronutrient analysis
The micronutrient contents of the wild edible fruits were observed to be appreciably high. The highest iron content was recorded in Glycosmis pentaphylla (5.28 mg/100 g) and the
Studies on Medicinal plants and wild edible fruits
lowest in Ziziphus mauritiana (1.04 mg/100 g). Highest Copper and Zinc were noted highest in Terminalia citrina i.e. 11.22 mg/100g and 41.93 mg/100g respectively. Ziziphus oenoplia registered highest Manganese content of 42.53 mg/100g while Ziziphus mauritiana showed the lowest of 0.52 mg/100g. Sodium ranged between 5.03 mg/100 g (Ziziphus mauritiana) and 52.97 mg/100g (Mimusops elengi). Similarly Potassium content was found to be highest in Eugenia rothii(2009.9 mg/100 g) and lowest in Streblus taxoidis (256.39 mg/100 g). And Calcium content was recorded highest in Mimusops elengi (1975.16 mg/100 g) while lowest in Ziziphus mauritiana (15.73 mg/100 g).
The comparative study explored superior/identical nutritional status in terms of carbohydrate, sugar and protein and mineral contents in Eugenia rothii, Mimusops elengi, Ziziphus oenoplia, Zizipus rugosa, Bridelia tomentosa and Carissa spinarumo with reference to the cultivated fruits like mango, pomegranate, sapota, grapes, guava, cherry, banana and lemon etc. It is also found that the wild edible fruits are excellent sources of mineral elements like Iron, Sodium, Potassium and Calcium and thus display promising aspects to be used as dietary supplement.
Comparative study of major nutrient components of wild edible fruits with that of popularly consumed fruits.
8.2. Evaluation of Piperine content in adventitious roots of QPM of Piper longum
- Estimation of Piperine content in adventitious roots of Piper longum QPM of different agro-climatic origin.
- Estimation of Colchicine in tubers of wild and cultivated QPM of different agro-climatic origin.
In order to evaluate piperine content in adventitious roots regenerated from nodal cuttings, apical halves of leaf cuttings and petiolar halves of leaf cuttings, the mother stock plants were collected from three different agroclimatic zones namely East south eastern coastal plain (ESECP-K, Khurda Dist.),North central plateau (NCP-K, Keonjhar Dist.) and North-Eastern Ghat (NEG-GU, Phulbani Dist). Piperine was extracted and confirmed through TLC method against Standard. The piperine content was evaluated quantitatively using HPLC following standard procedure. Piperine content ranged from 0.13% to 0.19%.
Fig.-A,D :Adventitious Roots evaluated for Piperine content: A-roots from nodal cuttings; D-roots o Leaf-origin ; B- TLC showing Piperine band of sample against standard; C-piperine content in roots of diff. origin (R-NO-root from nodal cuttings, R-APHLO-root from apical halves of leaf cuttings, R-PHLO-root from petiolar halves of leaf cuttings; E- HPLC analysis: showing Pick for piperine standard;F- HPLC analysis: showing Pick for piperine in test sample.
8.3. Estimation of Colchicine in tubers obtained from wild and cultivated QPM of Gloriosa superba
Colchicine content was evaluated in tubers of both wild and cultivated QPM. The wild source of tubers were four different agroclimatic zones namely East south eastern coastal plain (ESECP-G, Ganjam Dist.),North central plateau (NCP-K, Keonjhar Dist), Western central table land (WCTL-B, Bargarh Dist.) and North central plateau (NCP-K, Mayurbhanj). Colchicine was extracted and confirmed through TLC method a