Orchids (Orchidaceae) because of their spectacular flowers, unpara¬llel range of variations, biological complexity and fast depleting population, have attracted worldwide attention. In India, there are over 12,000 species of orchids; of which, about 550 occur in North-Eastern India. Orissa alone harbours 133 species including many novelties and new distributional records. RPRC has a collection of about 220 orchid species/ cultivars/ hybrids collected from Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, North Eastern States, other parts of India and abroad. The principal genera of orchids are Dendrobium, Habenaria, Vanda, Coelogyne, Eria, Oberonia, Bulbophyllum, Acampe and Aerides. Of the rare and endangered species, Habenaria panigrahiana, Pomatocalpa decipiens, Didymoplexis pallens, Odisha cleistantha, Crepidium purpureum, Tainia hookeriana, Micropera pallida etc. deserve special mention. Besides, under the All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Floriculture, 11 commercially important hybrids of Dendrobium and other inter-generic hybrids of Vanda, Arenda, Oncidium, Cattlaya and Phaius are being evaluated and maintained under green house condition. Another All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Taxonomy Capacity Building Project on Orchids is also in operation at the Centre and under the project field survey, live plant collection, herbarium preparation, spirit collection of specimens and taxonomic study of the orchids of Eastern Ghat region have been undertaken. An Orchidarium is being erected in the Botanic Garden shortly to exhibit wild species and hybrids of orchid for conservation, public education and awareness creation.